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pr-output.cc

/*

Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
              2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 John W. Eaton

This file is part of Octave.

Octave is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version.

Octave is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with Octave; see the file COPYING.  If not, see
<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

*/

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include <config.h>
#endif

#include <cfloat>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>

#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>

#include "Array-util.h"
#include "CMatrix.h"
#include "Range.h"
#include "cmd-edit.h"
#include "dMatrix.h"
#include "lo-mappers.h"
#include "lo-math.h"
#include "mach-info.h"
#include "oct-cmplx.h"
#include "quit.h"
#include "str-vec.h"

#include "Cell.h"
#include "defun.h"
#include "error.h"
#include "gripes.h"
#include "oct-obj.h"
#include "oct-stream.h"
#include "pager.h"
#include "pr-output.h"
#include "sysdep.h"
#include "unwind-prot.h"
#include "utils.h"
#include "variables.h"

// TRUE means use a scaled fixed point format for `format long' and
// `format short'.
static bool Vfixed_point_format = false;

// The maximum field width for a number printed by the default output
// routines.
static int Voutput_max_field_width = 10;

// The precision of the numbers printed by the default output
// routines.
static int Voutput_precision = 5;

// TRUE means that the dimensions of empty objects should be printed
// like this: x = [](2x0).
bool Vprint_empty_dimensions = true;

// TRUE means that the rows of big matrices should be split into
// smaller slices that fit on the screen.
static bool Vsplit_long_rows = true;

// How many levels of structure elements should we print?
int Vstruct_levels_to_print = 2;

// TRUE means don't do any fancy formatting.
static bool free_format = false;

// TRUE means print plus sign for nonzero, blank for zero.
static bool plus_format = false;

// First char for > 0, second for < 0, third for == 0.
static std::string plus_format_chars = "+  ";

// TRUE means always print in a rational approximation
static bool rat_format = false;

// Used to force the length of the rational approximation string for Frats
static int rat_string_len = -1;

// TRUE means always print like dollars and cents.
static bool bank_format = false;

// TRUE means print data in hexadecimal format.
static int hex_format = 0;

// TRUE means print data in binary-bit-pattern format.
static int bit_format = 0;

// TRUE means don't put newlines around the column number headers.
static bool compact_format = false;

// TRUE means use an e format.
static bool print_e = false;

// TRUE means use a g format.
static bool print_g = false;

// TRUE means print E instead of e for exponent field.
static bool print_big_e = false;

class pr_formatted_float;
class pr_rational_float;

static int
current_output_max_field_width (void)
{
  return Voutput_max_field_width;
}

static int
current_output_precision (void)
{
  return Voutput_precision;
}

class
float_format
{
public:

  float_format (int w = current_output_max_field_width (),
            int p = current_output_precision (), int f = 0)
    : fw (w), prec (p), fmt (f), up (0), sp (0) { }

  float_format (const float_format& ff)
    : fw (ff.fw), prec (ff.prec), fmt (ff.fmt), up (ff.up), sp (ff.sp) { }

  float_format& operator = (const float_format& ff)
    {
      if (&ff != this)
      {
        fw = ff.fw;
        prec = ff.prec;
        fmt = ff.fmt;
        up = ff.up;
        sp = ff.sp;
      }

      return *this;
    }

  ~float_format (void) { }

  float_format& scientific (void) { fmt = std::ios::scientific; return *this; }
  float_format& fixed (void) { fmt = std::ios::fixed; return *this; }
  float_format& general (void) { fmt = 0; return *this; }

  float_format& uppercase (void) { up = std::ios::uppercase; return *this; }
  float_format& lowercase (void) { up = 0; return *this; }

  float_format& precision (int p) { prec = p; return *this; }

  float_format& width (int w) { fw = w; return *this; }

  float_format& trailing_zeros (bool tz = true)
    { sp = tz ? std::ios::showpoint : 0; return *this; }

  friend std::ostream& operator << (std::ostream& os,
                            const pr_formatted_float& pff);

  friend std::ostream& operator << (std::ostream& os,
                            const pr_rational_float& pff);

private:

  // Field width.  Zero means as wide as necessary.
  int fw;

  // Precision.
  int prec;

  // Format.
  int fmt;

  // E or e.
  int up;

  // Show trailing zeros.
  int sp;
};

class
pr_formatted_float
{
public:

  const float_format& f;

  double val;

  pr_formatted_float (const float_format& f_arg, double val_arg)
    : f (f_arg), val (val_arg) { }
};

std::ostream&
operator << (std::ostream& os, const pr_formatted_float& pff)
{
  if (pff.f.fw >= 0)
    os << std::setw (pff.f.fw);

  if (pff.f.prec >= 0)
    os << std::setprecision (pff.f.prec);

  std::ios::fmtflags oflags = 
    os.flags (static_cast<std::ios::fmtflags> 
              (pff.f.fmt | pff.f.up | pff.f.sp));

  os << pff.val;

  os.flags (oflags);

  return os;
}

static inline std::string
rational_approx (double val, int len)
{
  std::string s;

  if (len <= 0)
    len = 10;

  if (xisinf (val))
    s = "1/0";
  else if (xisnan (val))
    s = "0/0";
  else if (val < INT_MIN || val > INT_MAX || D_NINT (val) == val)
    {
      std::ostringstream buf;
      buf.flags (std::ios::fixed);
      buf << std::setprecision (0) << xround(val);
      s = buf.str ();
    }
  else
    {
      double lastn = 1.;
      double lastd = 0.;
      double n = xround (val);
      double d = 1.;
      double frac = val - n;
      int m = 0;

      std::ostringstream buf2;
      buf2.flags (std::ios::fixed);
      buf2 << std::setprecision (0) << static_cast<int>(n); 
      s = buf2.str();

      while (1)
      {
        double flip = 1. / frac;
        double step = xround (flip);
        double nextn = n;
        double nextd = d;
        frac = flip - step;
        n = n * step + lastn;
        d = d * step + lastd;
        lastn = nextn;
        lastd = nextd;

        std::ostringstream buf;
        buf.flags (std::ios::fixed);
        buf << std::setprecision (0) << static_cast<int>(n) 
            << "/" << static_cast<int>(d);
        m++;

        if (n < 0 && d < 0)
          {
            // Double negative, string can be two characters longer..
            if (buf.str().length() > static_cast<unsigned int>(len + 2) && 
              m > 1) 
            break;
          }
        else if (buf.str().length() > static_cast<unsigned int>(len) && 
               m > 1) 
          break;

        s = buf.str();

        // Have we converged to 1/intmax ?
        if (m > 100 || fabs (frac) < 1 / static_cast<double>(INT_MAX))
          {
            lastn = n;
            lastd = d;
            break;
          }
      }

      if (lastd < 0.)
      {
        // Move sign to the top
        lastd = - lastd;
        lastn = - lastn;
        std::ostringstream buf;
        buf.flags (std::ios::fixed);
        buf << std::setprecision (0) << static_cast<int>(lastn) 
             << "/" << static_cast<int>(lastd);
        s = buf.str();
      }
    }

  return s;
}

class
pr_rational_float
{
public:

  const float_format& f;

  double val;

  pr_rational_float (const float_format& f_arg, double val_arg)
    : f (f_arg), val (val_arg) { }
};

std::ostream&
operator << (std::ostream& os, const pr_rational_float& prf)
{
  int fw = (rat_string_len > 0 ? rat_string_len : prf.f.fw);
  std::string s = rational_approx (prf.val, fw);

  if (fw >= 0)
    os << std::setw (fw);

  std::ios::fmtflags oflags = 
    os.flags (static_cast<std::ios::fmtflags> 
              (prf.f.fmt | prf.f.up | prf.f.sp));

  if (fw > 0 && s.length() > static_cast<unsigned int>(fw))
    os << "*";
  else
    os << s;

  os.flags (oflags);

  return os;
}

// Current format for real numbers and the real part of complex
// numbers.
static float_format *curr_real_fmt = 0;

// Current format for the imaginary part of complex numbers.
static float_format *curr_imag_fmt = 0;

static double
pr_max_internal (const Matrix& m)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = m.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = m.columns ();

  double result = -DBL_MAX;

  bool all_inf_or_nan = true;

  for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
    for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
      double val = m(i,j);
      if (xisinf (val) || xisnan (val))
        continue;

      all_inf_or_nan = false;

      if (val > result)
        result = val;
      }

  if (all_inf_or_nan)
    result = 0.0;

  return result;
}

static double
pr_min_internal (const Matrix& m)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = m.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = m.columns ();

  double result = DBL_MAX;

  bool all_inf_or_nan = true;

  for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
    for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
      double val = m(i,j);
      if (xisinf (val) || xisnan (val))
        continue;

      all_inf_or_nan = false;

      if (val < result)
        result = val;
      }

  if (all_inf_or_nan)
    result = 0.0;

  return result;
}

// FIXME -- it would be nice to share more code among these
// functions,..

static void
set_real_format (int digits, bool inf_or_nan, bool int_only, int &fw)
{
  static float_format fmt;

  int prec = Voutput_precision;

  int ld, rd;

  if (rat_format)
    {
      fw = 0;
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bank_format)
    {
      fw = digits < 0 ? 4 : digits + 3;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
      rd = 2;
    }
  else if (hex_format)
    {
      fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bit_format)
    {
      fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (inf_or_nan || int_only)
    {
      fw = 1 + digits;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
      rd = fw;
    }
  else
    {
      if (digits > 0)
      {
        ld = digits;
        rd = prec > digits ? prec - digits : prec;
        digits++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld = 1;
        rd = prec > digits ? prec - digits : prec;
        digits = -digits + 1;
      }

      fw = 1 + ld + 1 + rd;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
    }

  if (! (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format || bit_format)
      && (fw > Voutput_max_field_width || print_e || print_g))
    {
      if (print_g)
      fmt = float_format ();
      else
      {
        int exp_field = 4;
        if (digits > 100)
          exp_field++;

        fw = 2 + prec + exp_field;
        if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
          fw = 4;

        fmt = float_format (fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
      }

      if (print_big_e)
      fmt.uppercase ();
    }
  else if (! bank_format && (inf_or_nan || int_only))
    fmt = float_format (fw, rd);
  else
    fmt = float_format (fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);

  curr_real_fmt = &fmt;
}

static void
set_format (double d, int& fw)
{
  curr_real_fmt = 0;
  curr_imag_fmt = 0;

  if (free_format)
    return;

  bool inf_or_nan = (xisinf (d) || xisnan (d));

  bool int_only = (! inf_or_nan && D_NINT (d) == d);

  double d_abs = d < 0.0 ? -d : d;

  int digits = (inf_or_nan || d_abs == 0.0)
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (d_abs) + 1.0));

  set_real_format (digits, inf_or_nan, int_only, fw);
}

static inline void
set_format (double d)
{
  int fw;
  set_format (d, fw);
}

static void
set_real_matrix_format (int x_max, int x_min, bool inf_or_nan,
                  int int_or_inf_or_nan, int& fw)
{
  static float_format fmt;

  int prec = Voutput_precision;

  int ld, rd;

  if (rat_format)
    {
      fw = 9;
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bank_format)
    {
      int digits = x_max > x_min ? x_max : x_min;
      fw = digits <= 0 ? 4 : digits + 3;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
      rd = 2;
    }
  else if (hex_format)
    {
      fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bit_format)
    {
      fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (Vfixed_point_format && ! print_g)
    {
      rd = prec;
      fw = rd + 2;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
    }
  else if (int_or_inf_or_nan)
    {
      int digits = x_max > x_min ? x_max : x_min;
      fw = digits <= 0 ? 2 : digits + 1;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
      rd = fw;
    }
  else
    {
      int ld_max, rd_max;
      if (x_max > 0)
      {
        ld_max = x_max;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_max = 1;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max = -x_max + 1;
      }

      int ld_min, rd_min;
      if (x_min > 0)
      {
        ld_min = x_min;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_min = 1;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min = -x_min + 1;
      }

      ld = ld_max > ld_min ? ld_max : ld_min;
      rd = rd_max > rd_min ? rd_max : rd_min;

      fw = 1 + ld + 1 + rd;
      if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
      fw = 4;
    }

  if (! (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format || bit_format)
      && (print_e
        || print_g
        || (! Vfixed_point_format && fw > Voutput_max_field_width)))
    {
      if (print_g)
      fmt = float_format ();
      else
      {
        int exp_field = 4;
        if (x_max > 100 || x_min > 100)
          exp_field++;

        fw = 2 + prec + exp_field;
        if (inf_or_nan && fw < 4)
          fw = 4;

        fmt = float_format (fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
      }

      if (print_big_e)
      fmt.uppercase ();
    }
  else if (! bank_format && int_or_inf_or_nan)
    fmt = float_format (fw, rd);
  else
    fmt = float_format (fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);

  curr_real_fmt = &fmt;
}

static void
set_format (const Matrix& m, int& fw, double& scale)
{
  curr_real_fmt = 0;
  curr_imag_fmt = 0;

  if (free_format)
    return;

  bool inf_or_nan = m.any_element_is_inf_or_nan ();

  bool int_or_inf_or_nan = m.all_elements_are_int_or_inf_or_nan ();

  Matrix m_abs = m.abs ();
  double max_abs = pr_max_internal (m_abs);
  double min_abs = pr_min_internal (m_abs);

  int x_max = max_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (max_abs) + 1.0));

  int x_min = min_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (min_abs) + 1.0));

  scale = (x_max == 0 || int_or_inf_or_nan) ? 1.0 : std::pow (10.0, x_max - 1);

  set_real_matrix_format (x_max, x_min, inf_or_nan, int_or_inf_or_nan, fw);
}

static inline void
set_format (const Matrix& m)
{
  int fw;
  double scale;
  set_format (m, fw, scale);
}

static void
set_complex_format (int x_max, int x_min, int r_x, bool inf_or_nan,
                int int_only, int& r_fw, int& i_fw)
{
  static float_format r_fmt;
  static float_format i_fmt;

  int prec = Voutput_precision;

  int ld, rd;

  if (rat_format)
    {
      i_fw = 0;
      r_fw = 0;
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bank_format)
    {
      int digits = r_x;
      i_fw = 0;
      r_fw = digits <= 0 ? 4 : digits + 3;
      if (inf_or_nan && r_fw < 4)
      r_fw = 4;
      rd = 2;
    }
  else if (hex_format)
    {
      r_fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      i_fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bit_format)
    {
      r_fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      i_fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (inf_or_nan || int_only)
    {
      int digits = x_max > x_min ? x_max : x_min;
      i_fw = digits <= 0 ? 1 : digits;
      r_fw = i_fw + 1;
      if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
      {
        i_fw = 3;
        r_fw = 4;
      }
      rd = r_fw;
    }
  else
    {
      int ld_max, rd_max;
      if (x_max > 0)
      {
        ld_max = x_max;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_max = 1;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max = -x_max + 1;
      }

      int ld_min, rd_min;
      if (x_min > 0)
      {
        ld_min = x_min;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_min = 1;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min = -x_min + 1;
      }

      ld = ld_max > ld_min ? ld_max : ld_min;
      rd = rd_max > rd_min ? rd_max : rd_min;

      i_fw = ld + 1 + rd;
      r_fw = i_fw + 1;
      if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
      {
        i_fw = 3;
        r_fw = 4;
      }
    }

  if (! (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format || bit_format)
      && (r_fw > Voutput_max_field_width || print_e || print_g))
    {
      if (print_g)
      {
        r_fmt = float_format ();
        i_fmt = float_format ();
      }
      else
      {
        int exp_field = 4;
        if (x_max > 100 || x_min > 100)
          exp_field++;

        i_fw = prec + exp_field;
        r_fw = i_fw + 1;
        if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
          {
            i_fw = 3;
            r_fw = 4;
          }

        r_fmt = float_format (r_fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
        i_fmt = float_format (i_fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
      }

      if (print_big_e)
      {
        r_fmt.uppercase ();
        i_fmt.uppercase ();
      }
    }
  else if (! bank_format && (inf_or_nan || int_only))
    {
      r_fmt = float_format (r_fw, rd);
      i_fmt = float_format (i_fw, rd);
    }
  else
    {
      r_fmt = float_format (r_fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);
      i_fmt = float_format (i_fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);
    }

  curr_real_fmt = &r_fmt;
  curr_imag_fmt = &i_fmt;
}

static void
set_format (const Complex& c, int& r_fw, int& i_fw)
{
  curr_real_fmt = 0;
  curr_imag_fmt = 0;

  if (free_format)
    return;

  double rp = c.real ();
  double ip = c.imag ();

  bool inf_or_nan = (xisinf (c) || xisnan (c));

  bool int_only = (D_NINT (rp) == rp && D_NINT (ip) == ip);

  double r_abs = rp < 0.0 ? -rp : rp;
  double i_abs = ip < 0.0 ? -ip : ip;

  int r_x = r_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (r_abs) + 1.0));

  int i_x = i_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (i_abs) + 1.0));

  int x_max, x_min;

  if (r_x > i_x)
    {
      x_max = r_x;
      x_min = i_x;
    }
  else
    {
      x_max = i_x;
      x_min = r_x;
    }

  set_complex_format (x_max, x_min, r_x, inf_or_nan, int_only, r_fw, i_fw);
}

static inline void
set_format (const Complex& c)
{
  int r_fw, i_fw;
  set_format (c, r_fw, i_fw);
}

static void
set_complex_matrix_format (int x_max, int x_min, int r_x_max,
                     int r_x_min, bool inf_or_nan,
                     int int_or_inf_or_nan, int& r_fw, int& i_fw)
{
  static float_format r_fmt;
  static float_format i_fmt;

  int prec = Voutput_precision;

  int ld, rd;

  if (rat_format)
    {
      i_fw = 9;
      r_fw = 9;
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bank_format)
    {
      int digits = r_x_max > r_x_min ? r_x_max : r_x_min;
      i_fw = 0;
      r_fw = digits <= 0 ? 4 : digits + 3;
      if (inf_or_nan && r_fw < 4)
      r_fw = 4;
      rd = 2;
    }
  else if (hex_format)
    {
      r_fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      i_fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bit_format)
    {
      r_fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      i_fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (Vfixed_point_format && ! print_g)
    {
      rd = prec;
      i_fw = rd + 1;
      r_fw = i_fw + 1;
      if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
      {
        i_fw = 3;
        r_fw = 4;
      }
    }
  else if (int_or_inf_or_nan)
    {
      int digits = x_max > x_min ? x_max : x_min;
      i_fw = digits <= 0 ? 1 : digits;
      r_fw = i_fw + 1;
      if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
      {
        i_fw = 3;
        r_fw = 4;
      }
      rd = r_fw;
    }
  else
    {
      int ld_max, rd_max;
      if (x_max > 0)
      {
        ld_max = x_max;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_max = 1;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max = -x_max + 1;
      }

      int ld_min, rd_min;
      if (x_min > 0)
      {
        ld_min = x_min;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_min = 1;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min = -x_min + 1;
      }

      ld = ld_max > ld_min ? ld_max : ld_min;
      rd = rd_max > rd_min ? rd_max : rd_min;

      i_fw = ld + 1 + rd;
      r_fw = i_fw + 1;
      if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
      {
        i_fw = 3;
        r_fw = 4;
      }
    }

  if (! (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format || bit_format)
      && (print_e
        || print_g
        || (! Vfixed_point_format && r_fw > Voutput_max_field_width)))
    {
      if (print_g)
      {
        r_fmt = float_format ();
        i_fmt = float_format ();
      }
      else
      {
        int exp_field = 4;
        if (x_max > 100 || x_min > 100)
          exp_field++;

        i_fw = prec + exp_field;
        r_fw = i_fw + 1;
        if (inf_or_nan && i_fw < 3)
          {
            i_fw = 3;
            r_fw = 4;
          }

        r_fmt = float_format (r_fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
        i_fmt = float_format (i_fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
      }

      if (print_big_e)
      {
        r_fmt.uppercase ();
        i_fmt.uppercase ();
      }
    }
  else if (! bank_format && int_or_inf_or_nan)
    {
      r_fmt = float_format (r_fw, rd);
      i_fmt = float_format (i_fw, rd);
    }
  else
    {
      r_fmt = float_format (r_fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);
      i_fmt = float_format (i_fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);
    }

  curr_real_fmt = &r_fmt;
  curr_imag_fmt = &i_fmt;
}

static void
set_format (const ComplexMatrix& cm, int& r_fw, int& i_fw, double& scale)
{
  curr_real_fmt = 0;
  curr_imag_fmt = 0;

  if (free_format)
    return;

  Matrix rp = real (cm);
  Matrix ip = imag (cm);

  bool inf_or_nan = cm.any_element_is_inf_or_nan ();

  bool int_or_inf_or_nan = (rp.all_elements_are_int_or_inf_or_nan ()
                      && ip.all_elements_are_int_or_inf_or_nan ());

  Matrix r_m_abs = rp.abs ();
  double r_max_abs = pr_max_internal (r_m_abs);
  double r_min_abs = pr_min_internal (r_m_abs);

  Matrix i_m_abs = ip.abs ();
  double i_max_abs = pr_max_internal (i_m_abs);
  double i_min_abs = pr_min_internal (i_m_abs);

  int r_x_max = r_max_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (r_max_abs) + 1.0));

  int r_x_min = r_min_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (r_min_abs) + 1.0));

  int i_x_max = i_max_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (i_max_abs) + 1.0));

  int i_x_min = i_min_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (i_min_abs) + 1.0));

  int x_max = r_x_max > i_x_max ? r_x_max : i_x_max;
  int x_min = r_x_min > i_x_min ? r_x_min : i_x_min;

  scale = (x_max == 0 || int_or_inf_or_nan) ? 1.0 : std::pow (10.0, x_max - 1);

  set_complex_matrix_format (x_max, x_min, r_x_max, r_x_min, inf_or_nan,
                       int_or_inf_or_nan, r_fw, i_fw);
}

static inline void
set_format (const ComplexMatrix& cm)
{
  int r_fw, i_fw;
  double scale;
  set_format (cm, r_fw, i_fw, scale);
}

static void
set_range_format (int x_max, int x_min, int all_ints, int& fw)
{
  static float_format fmt;

  int prec = Voutput_precision;

  int ld, rd;

  if (rat_format)
    {
      fw = 9;
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bank_format)
    {
      int digits = x_max > x_min ? x_max : x_min;
      fw = digits < 0 ? 5 : digits + 4;
      rd = 2;
    }
  else if (hex_format)
    {
      fw = 2 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (bit_format)
    {
      fw = 8 * sizeof (double);
      rd = 0;
    }
  else if (all_ints)
    {
      int digits = x_max > x_min ? x_max : x_min;
      fw = digits + 1;
      rd = fw;
    }
  else if (Vfixed_point_format && ! print_g)
    {
      rd = prec;
      fw = rd + 3;
    }
  else
    {
      int ld_max, rd_max;
      if (x_max > 0)
      {
        ld_max = x_max;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_max = 1;
        rd_max = prec > x_max ? prec - x_max : prec;
        x_max = -x_max + 1;
      }

      int ld_min, rd_min;
      if (x_min > 0)
      {
        ld_min = x_min;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min++;
      }
      else
      {
        ld_min = 1;
        rd_min = prec > x_min ? prec - x_min : prec;
        x_min = -x_min + 1;
      }

      ld = ld_max > ld_min ? ld_max : ld_min;
      rd = rd_max > rd_min ? rd_max : rd_min;

      fw = ld + rd + 3;
    }

  if (! (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format || bit_format)
      && (print_e
        || print_g
        || (! Vfixed_point_format && fw > Voutput_max_field_width)))
    {
      if (print_g)
      fmt = float_format ();
      else
      {
        int exp_field = 4;
        if (x_max > 100 || x_min > 100)
          exp_field++;

        fw = 3 + prec + exp_field;

        fmt = float_format (fw, prec - 1, std::ios::scientific);
      }

      if (print_big_e)
      fmt.uppercase ();
    }
  else if (! bank_format && all_ints)
    fmt = float_format (fw, rd);
  else
    fmt = float_format (fw, rd, std::ios::fixed);

  curr_real_fmt = &fmt;
}

static void
set_format (const Range& r, int& fw, double& scale)
{
  curr_real_fmt = 0;
  curr_imag_fmt = 0;

  if (free_format)
    return;

  double r_min = r.base ();
  double r_max = r.limit ();

  if (r_max < r_min)
    {
      double tmp = r_max;
      r_max = r_min;
      r_min = tmp;
    }

  bool all_ints = r.all_elements_are_ints ();

  double max_abs = r_max < 0.0 ? -r_max : r_max;
  double min_abs = r_min < 0.0 ? -r_min : r_min;

  int x_max = max_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (max_abs) + 1.0));

  int x_min = min_abs == 0.0
    ? 0 : static_cast<int> (floor (log10 (min_abs) + 1.0));

  scale = (x_max == 0 || all_ints) ? 1.0 : std::pow (10.0, x_max - 1);

  set_range_format (x_max, x_min, all_ints, fw);
}

static inline void
set_format (const Range& r)
{
  int fw;
  double scale;
  set_format (r, fw, scale);
}

union equiv
{
  double d;
  unsigned char i[sizeof (double)];
};

#define PRINT_CHAR_BITS(os, c) \
  do \
    { \
      unsigned char ctmp = c; \
      char stmp[9]; \
      stmp[0] = (ctmp & 0x80) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[1] = (ctmp & 0x40) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[2] = (ctmp & 0x20) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[3] = (ctmp & 0x10) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[4] = (ctmp & 0x08) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[5] = (ctmp & 0x04) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[6] = (ctmp & 0x02) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[7] = (ctmp & 0x01) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[8] = '\0'; \
      os << stmp; \
    } \
  while (0)

#define PRINT_CHAR_BITS_SWAPPED(os, c) \
  do \
    { \
      unsigned char ctmp = c; \
      char stmp[9]; \
      stmp[0] = (ctmp & 0x01) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[1] = (ctmp & 0x02) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[2] = (ctmp & 0x04) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[3] = (ctmp & 0x08) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[4] = (ctmp & 0x10) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[5] = (ctmp & 0x20) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[6] = (ctmp & 0x40) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[7] = (ctmp & 0x80) ? '1' : '0'; \
      stmp[8] = '\0'; \
      os << stmp; \
    } \
  while (0)

static void
pr_any_float (const float_format *fmt, std::ostream& os, double d, int fw = 0)
{
  if (fmt)
    {
      // Unless explicitly asked for, always print in big-endian
      // format for hex and bit formats.
      //
      //   {bit,hex}_format == 1: print big-endian
      //   {bit,hex}_format == 2: print native

      if (hex_format)
      {
        equiv tmp;
        tmp.d = d;

        // Unless explicitly asked for, always print in big-endian
        // format.

        // FIXME -- is it correct to swap bytes for VAX
        // formats and not for Cray?

        // FIXME -- will bad things happen if we are
        // interrupted before resetting the format flags and fill
        // character?

        oct_mach_info::float_format flt_fmt =
          oct_mach_info::native_float_format ();

        char ofill = os.fill ('0');

        std::ios::fmtflags oflags
          = os.flags (std::ios::right | std::ios::hex);

        if (hex_format > 1
            || flt_fmt == oct_mach_info::flt_fmt_ieee_big_endian
            || flt_fmt == oct_mach_info::flt_fmt_cray
            || flt_fmt == oct_mach_info::flt_fmt_unknown)
          {
            for (size_t i = 0; i < sizeof (double); i++)
            os << std::setw (2) << static_cast<int> (tmp.i[i]);
          }
        else
          {
            for (int i = sizeof (double) - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            os << std::setw (2) << static_cast<int> (tmp.i[i]);
          }

        os.fill (ofill);
        os.setf (oflags);       
      }
      else if (bit_format)
      {
        equiv tmp;
        tmp.d = d;

        // FIXME -- is it correct to swap bytes for VAX
        // formats and not for Cray?

        oct_mach_info::float_format flt_fmt =
          oct_mach_info::native_float_format ();

        if (flt_fmt == oct_mach_info::flt_fmt_ieee_big_endian
            || flt_fmt == oct_mach_info::flt_fmt_cray
            || flt_fmt == oct_mach_info::flt_fmt_unknown)
          {
            for (size_t i = 0; i < sizeof (double); i++)
            PRINT_CHAR_BITS (os, tmp.i[i]);
          }
        else
          {
            if (bit_format > 1)
            {
              for (size_t i = 0; i < sizeof (double); i++)
                PRINT_CHAR_BITS_SWAPPED (os, tmp.i[i]);
            }
            else
            {
              for (int i = sizeof (double) - 1; i >= 0; i--)
                PRINT_CHAR_BITS (os, tmp.i[i]);
            }
          }
      }
      else if (octave_is_NA (d))
      {
        if (fw > 0)
          os << std::setw (fw) << "NA";
        else
          os << "NA";
      }
      else if (rat_format)
      os << pr_rational_float (*fmt, d);
      else if (xisinf (d))
      {
        const char *s;
        if (d < 0.0)
          s = "-Inf";
        else
          s = "Inf";

        if (fw > 0)
          os << std::setw (fw) << s;
        else
          os << s;
      }
      else if (xisnan (d))
      {
        if (fw > 0)
          os << std::setw (fw) << "NaN";
        else
          os << "NaN";
      }
      else
      os << pr_formatted_float (*fmt, d);
    }
  else
    os << d;
}

static inline void
pr_float (std::ostream& os, double d, int fw = 0, double scale = 1.0)
{
  if (Vfixed_point_format && ! print_g && scale != 1.0)
    d /= scale;

  pr_any_float (curr_real_fmt, os, d, fw);
}

static inline void
pr_imag_float (std::ostream& os, double d, int fw = 0)
{
  pr_any_float (curr_imag_fmt, os, d, fw);
}

static void
pr_complex (std::ostream& os, const Complex& c, int r_fw = 0,
          int i_fw = 0, double scale = 1.0)
{
  Complex tmp
    = (Vfixed_point_format && ! print_g && scale != 1.0) ? c / scale : c;

  double r = tmp.real ();

  pr_float (os, r, r_fw);

  if (! bank_format)
    {
      double i = tmp.imag ();
      if (! (hex_format || bit_format) && lo_ieee_signbit (i))
      {
        os << " - ";
        i = -i;
        pr_imag_float (os, i, i_fw);
      }
      else
      {
        if (hex_format || bit_format)
          os << "  ";
        else
          os << " + ";

        pr_imag_float (os, i, i_fw);
      }
      os << "i";
    }
}

static void
print_empty_matrix (std::ostream& os, octave_idx_type nr, octave_idx_type nc, bool pr_as_read_syntax)
{
  assert (nr == 0 || nc == 0);

  if (pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      if (nr == 0 && nc == 0)
      os << "[]";
      else
      os << "zeros (" << nr << ", " << nc << ")";
    }
  else
    {
      os << "[]";

      if (Vprint_empty_dimensions)
      os << "(" << nr << "x" << nc << ")";
    }
}

static void
print_empty_nd_array (std::ostream& os, const dim_vector& dims,
                  bool pr_as_read_syntax)
{
  assert (dims.any_zero ());

  if (pr_as_read_syntax)
    os << "zeros (" << dims.str (',') << ")";
  else
    {
      os << "[]";

      if (Vprint_empty_dimensions)
      os << "(" << dims.str () << ")";
    }
}

static void
pr_scale_header (std::ostream& os, double scale)
{
  if (Vfixed_point_format && ! print_g && scale != 1.0)
    {
      os << "  "
       << std::setw (8) << std::setprecision (1)
       << std::setiosflags (std::ios::scientific|std::ios::left)
       << scale
       << std::resetiosflags (std::ios::scientific|std::ios::left)
       << " *\n";

      if (! compact_format)
      os << "\n";
    }
}

static void
pr_col_num_header (std::ostream& os, octave_idx_type total_width, int max_width,
               octave_idx_type lim, octave_idx_type col, int extra_indent)
{
  if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
    {
      if (col != 0)
      {
        if (compact_format)
          os << "\n";
        else
          os << "\n\n";
      }

      octave_idx_type num_cols = lim - col;

      os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

      if (num_cols == 1)
      os << " Column " << col + 1 << ":\n";
      else if (num_cols == 2)
      os << " Columns " << col + 1 << " and " << lim << ":\n";
      else
      os << " Columns " << col + 1 << " through " << lim << ":\n";

      if (! compact_format)
      os << "\n";
    }
}

template <class T>
/* static */ inline void
pr_plus_format (std::ostream& os, const T& val)
{
  if (val > T (0))
    os << plus_format_chars[0];
  else if (val < T (0))
    os << plus_format_chars[1];
  else
    os << plus_format_chars[2];
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, double d,
                   bool /* pr_as_read_syntax */)
{
  if (plus_format)
    {
      pr_plus_format (os, d);
    }
  else
    {
      set_format (d);
      if (free_format)
      os << d;
      else
      pr_float (os, d);
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const Matrix& m,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = m.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = m.columns ();

  if (nr == 0 || nc == 0)
    print_empty_matrix (os, nr, nc, pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
          {
            OCTAVE_QUIT;

            pr_plus_format (os, m(i,j));
          }

        if (i < nr - 1)
          os << "\n";
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int fw;
      double scale = 1.0;
      set_format (m, fw, scale);
      int column_width = fw + 2;
      octave_idx_type total_width = nc * column_width;
      octave_idx_type max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols ();

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      max_width -= 4;
      else
      max_width -= extra_indent;

      if (max_width < 0)
      max_width = 0;

      if (free_format)
      {
        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "[\n";

        os << m;

        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "]";

        return;
      }

      octave_idx_type inc = nc;
      if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
      {
        inc = max_width / column_width;
        if (inc == 0)
          inc++;
      }

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
          {
            octave_idx_type col = 0;
            while (col < nc)
            {
              octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  if (i == 0 && j == 0)
                  os << "[ ";
                  else
                  {
                    if (j > col && j < lim)
                      os << ", ";
                    else
                      os << "  ";
                  }

                  pr_float (os, m(i,j));
                }

              col += inc;

              if (col >= nc)
                {
                  if (i == nr - 1)
                  os << " ]";
                  else
                  os << ";\n";
                }
              else
                os << " ...\n";
            }
          }
      }
      else
      {
        pr_scale_header (os, scale);

        for (octave_idx_type col = 0; col < nc; col += inc)
          {
            octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

            pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                         extra_indent);

            for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
            {
              os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  os << "  ";

                  pr_float (os, m(i,j), fw, scale);
                }

              if (i < nr - 1)
                os << "\n";
            }
          }
      }
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const DiagMatrix& m,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = m.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = m.columns ();

  if (nr == 0 || nc == 0)
    print_empty_matrix (os, nr, nc, pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
          {
            OCTAVE_QUIT;

            pr_plus_format (os, m(i,j));
          }

        if (i < nr - 1)
          os << "\n";
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int fw;
      double scale = 1.0;
      set_format (Matrix (m.diag ()), fw, scale);
      int column_width = fw + 2;
      octave_idx_type total_width = nc * column_width;
      octave_idx_type max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols ();

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      max_width -= 4;
      else
      max_width -= extra_indent;

      if (max_width < 0)
      max_width = 0;

      if (free_format)
      {
        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "[\n";

        os << Matrix (m);

        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "]";

        return;
      }

      octave_idx_type inc = nc;
      if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
      {
        inc = max_width / column_width;
        if (inc == 0)
          inc++;
      }

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      {
          os << "diag (";

          octave_idx_type col = 0;
          while (col < nc)
            {
              octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  if (j == 0)
                    os << "[ ";
                  else
                    {
                      if (j > col && j < lim)
                        os << ", ";
                      else
                        os << "  ";
                    }

                  pr_float (os, m(j,j));
                }

              col += inc;

              if (col >= nc)
                  os << " ]";
              else
                os << " ...\n";
            }
          os << ")";
      }
      else
      {
          os << "Diagonal Matrix\n\n";
        pr_scale_header (os, scale);

          // kluge. Get the true width of a number.
          int zero_fw;

            { 
              std::ostringstream tmp_oss;
              pr_float (tmp_oss, 0.0, fw, scale);
              zero_fw = tmp_oss.str ().length ();
            }

        for (octave_idx_type col = 0; col < nc; col += inc)
          {
            octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

            pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                         extra_indent);

            for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
            {
              os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  os << "  ";

                      if (i == j)
                        pr_float (os, m(i,j), fw, scale);
                      else
                        os << std::setw (zero_fw) << '0';

                }

              if (i < nr - 1)
                os << "\n";
            }
          }
      }
    }
}
#define PRINT_ND_ARRAY(os, nda, NDA_T, ELT_T, MAT_T) \
  do \
    { \
      if (nda.is_empty ()) \
        print_empty_nd_array (os, nda.dims (), pr_as_read_syntax); \
      else \
        { \
 \
          int ndims = nda.ndims (); \
 \
          dim_vector dims = nda.dims (); \
 \
          Array<octave_idx_type> ra_idx (ndims, 0); \
 \
          octave_idx_type m = 1; \
 \
          for (int i = 2; i < ndims; i++) \
            m *= dims(i); \
 \
          octave_idx_type nr = dims(0); \
          octave_idx_type nc = dims(1); \
 \
          for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < m; i++) \
            { \
            OCTAVE_QUIT; \
 \
              std::string nm = "ans"; \
 \
              if (m > 1) \
                { \
                  nm += "(:,:,"; \
 \
              std::ostringstream buf; \
 \
                  for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++) \
                    { \
                      buf << ra_idx(k) + 1; \
 \
                      if (k < ndims - 1) \
                        buf << ","; \
                      else \
                        buf << ")"; \
                    } \
 \
                  nm += buf.str (); \
                } \
 \
              Array<idx_vector> idx (ndims); \
 \
              idx(0) = idx_vector (':'); \
              idx(1) = idx_vector (':'); \
 \
              for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++) \
                idx(k) = idx_vector (ra_idx(k)); \
 \
              octave_value page \
                = MAT_T (Array2<ELT_T> (nda.index (idx), nr, nc)); \
 \
              page.print_with_name (os, nm); \
 \
              if (i < m) \
                NDA_T::increment_index (ra_idx, dims, 2); \
            } \
        } \
    } \
  while (0)

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const NDArray& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  switch (nda.ndims ())
    {
    case 1:
    case 2:
      octave_print_internal (os, nda.matrix_value (),
                       pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
      break;

    default:
      PRINT_ND_ARRAY (os, nda, NDArray, double, Matrix);
      break;
    }
}

template <>
/* static */ inline void
pr_plus_format<> (std::ostream& os, const Complex& c)
{
  double rp = c.real ();
  double ip = c.imag ();

  if (rp == 0.0)
    {
      if (ip == 0.0)
      os << " ";
      else
      os << "i";
    }
  else if (ip == 0.0)
    pr_plus_format (os, rp);
  else
    os << "c";
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const Complex& c,
                   bool /* pr_as_read_syntax */)
{
  if (plus_format)
    {
      pr_plus_format (os, c);
    }
  else
    {
      set_format (c);
      if (free_format)
      os << c;
      else
      pr_complex (os, c);
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const ComplexMatrix& cm,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = cm.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = cm.columns ();

 if (nr == 0 || nc == 0)
    print_empty_matrix (os, nr, nc, pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
          {
            OCTAVE_QUIT;

            pr_plus_format (os, cm(i,j));
          }

        if (i < nr - 1)
          os << "\n";
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int r_fw, i_fw;
      double scale = 1.0;
      set_format (cm, r_fw, i_fw, scale);
      int column_width = i_fw + r_fw;
      column_width += (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format 
                   || bit_format) ? 2 : 7;
      octave_idx_type total_width = nc * column_width;
      octave_idx_type max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols ();

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      max_width -= 4;
      else
      max_width -= extra_indent;

      if (max_width < 0)
      max_width = 0;

      if (free_format)
      {
        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "[\n";

        os << cm;

        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "]";

        return;
      }

      octave_idx_type inc = nc;
      if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
      {
        inc = max_width / column_width;
        if (inc == 0)
          inc++;
      }

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
          {
            octave_idx_type col = 0;
            while (col < nc)
            {
              octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  if (i == 0 && j == 0)
                  os << "[ ";
                  else
                  {
                    if (j > col && j < lim)
                      os << ", ";
                    else
                      os << "  ";
                  }

                  pr_complex (os, cm(i,j));
                }

              col += inc;

              if (col >= nc)
                {
                  if (i == nr - 1)
                  os << " ]";
                  else
                  os << ";\n";
                }
              else
                os << " ...\n";
            }
          }
      }
      else
      {
        pr_scale_header (os, scale);

        for (octave_idx_type col = 0; col < nc; col += inc)
          {
            octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

            pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                         extra_indent);

            for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
            {
              os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  os << "  ";

                  pr_complex (os, cm(i,j), r_fw, i_fw, scale);
                }

              if (i < nr - 1) 
                os << "\n";
            }
          }
      }
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const ComplexDiagMatrix& cm,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = cm.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = cm.columns ();

 if (nr == 0 || nc == 0)
    print_empty_matrix (os, nr, nc, pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
          {
            OCTAVE_QUIT;

            pr_plus_format (os, cm(i,j));
          }

        if (i < nr - 1)
          os << "\n";
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int r_fw, i_fw;
      double scale = 1.0;
      set_format (ComplexMatrix (cm.diag ()), r_fw, i_fw, scale);
      int column_width = i_fw + r_fw;
      column_width += (rat_format || bank_format || hex_format 
                   || bit_format) ? 2 : 7;
      octave_idx_type total_width = nc * column_width;
      octave_idx_type max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols ();

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      max_width -= 4;
      else
      max_width -= extra_indent;

      if (max_width < 0)
      max_width = 0;

      if (free_format)
      {
        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "[\n";

        os << ComplexMatrix (cm);

        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "]";

        return;
      }

      octave_idx_type inc = nc;
      if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
      {
        inc = max_width / column_width;
        if (inc == 0)
          inc++;
      }

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      {
          os << "diag (";

          octave_idx_type col = 0;
          while (col < nc)
            {
              octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  if (j == 0)
                    os << "[ ";
                  else
                    {
                      if (j > col && j < lim)
                        os << ", ";
                      else
                        os << "  ";
                    }

                  pr_complex (os, cm(j,j));
                }

              col += inc;

              if (col >= nc)
                  os << " ]";
              else
                os << " ...\n";
            }
          os << ")";
      }
      else
      {
          os << "Diagonal Matrix\n\n";
        pr_scale_header (os, scale);

          // kluge. Get the true width of a number.
          int zero_fw;

            { 
              std::ostringstream tmp_oss;
              pr_complex (tmp_oss, Complex (0.0), r_fw, i_fw, scale);
              zero_fw = tmp_oss.str ().length ();
            }

        for (octave_idx_type col = 0; col < nc; col += inc)
          {
            octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

            pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                         extra_indent);

            for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
            {
              os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  os << "  ";

                      if (i == j)
                        pr_complex (os, cm(i,j), r_fw, i_fw, scale);
                      else
                        os << std::setw (zero_fw) << '0';
                }

              if (i < nr - 1) 
                os << "\n";
            }
          }
      }
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const PermMatrix& m,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_idx_type nr = m.rows ();
  octave_idx_type nc = m.columns ();

  if (nr == 0 || nc == 0)
    print_empty_matrix (os, nr, nc, pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type j = 0; j < nc; j++)
          {
            OCTAVE_QUIT;

            pr_plus_format (os, m(i,j));
          }

        if (i < nr - 1)
          os << "\n";
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int fw = 2;
      int column_width = fw + 2;
      octave_idx_type total_width = nc * column_width;
      octave_idx_type max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols ();

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      max_width -= 4;
      else
      max_width -= extra_indent;

      if (max_width < 0)
      max_width = 0;

      if (free_format)
      {
        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "[\n";

        os << Matrix (m);

        if (pr_as_read_syntax)
          os << "]";

        return;
      }

      octave_idx_type inc = nc;
      if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
      {
        inc = max_width / column_width;
        if (inc == 0)
          inc++;
      }

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
        {
          Array<octave_idx_type> pvec = m.pvec ();
          bool colp = m.is_col_perm ();

          os << "eye (";
          if (colp) os << ":, ";

          octave_idx_type col = 0;
          while (col < nc)
            {
              octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  if (j == 0)
                    os << "[ ";
                  else
                    {
                      if (j > col && j < lim)
                        os << ", ";
                      else
                        os << "  ";
                    }

                  os << pvec (j);
                }

              col += inc;

              if (col >= nc)
                  os << " ]";
              else
                os << " ...\n";
            }
          if (! colp) os << ", :";
          os << ")";
      }
      else
      {
          os << "Permutation Matrix\n\n";

        for (octave_idx_type col = 0; col < nc; col += inc)
          {
            octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < nc ? col + inc : nc;

            pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                         extra_indent);

            for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nr; i++)
            {
              os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

              for (octave_idx_type j = col; j < lim; j++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;

                  os << "  ";

                      os << std::setw (fw) << m(i,j);
                }

              if (i < nr - 1)
                os << "\n";
            }
          }
      }
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const ComplexNDArray& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  switch (nda.ndims ())
    {
    case 1:
    case 2:
      octave_print_internal (os, nda.matrix_value (),
                       pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
      break;

    default:
      PRINT_ND_ARRAY (os, nda, ComplexNDArray, Complex, ComplexMatrix);
      break;
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, bool d, bool pr_as_read_syntax)
{ 
  octave_print_internal (os, double (d), pr_as_read_syntax); 
}

// FIXME -- write single precision versions of the printing functions.

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, float d, bool pr_as_read_syntax)
{ 
  octave_print_internal (os, double (d), pr_as_read_syntax); 
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatMatrix& m,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{ 
  octave_print_internal (os, Matrix (m), pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent); 
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatDiagMatrix& m,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{ 
  octave_print_internal (os, DiagMatrix (m), pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent); 
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatNDArray& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_print_internal (os, NDArray (nda), pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent); 
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatComplex& c,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax)
{
  octave_print_internal (os, Complex (c), pr_as_read_syntax); 
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatComplexMatrix& cm,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_print_internal (os, ComplexMatrix (cm), pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatComplexDiagMatrix& cm,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_print_internal (os, ComplexDiagMatrix (cm), pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const FloatComplexNDArray& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  octave_print_internal (os, ComplexNDArray (nda), pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const Range& r,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  double base = r.base ();
  double increment = r.inc ();
  double limit = r.limit ();
  octave_idx_type num_elem = r.nelem ();

  if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < num_elem; i++)
      {
        OCTAVE_QUIT;

        double val = base + i * increment;

        pr_plus_format (os, val);
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int fw;
      double scale = 1.0;
      set_format (r, fw, scale);

      if (pr_as_read_syntax)
      {
        if (free_format)
          {
            os << base << " : ";
            if (increment != 1.0)
            os << increment << " : ";
            os << limit;
          }
        else
          {
            pr_float (os, base, fw);
            os << " : ";
            if (increment != 1.0)
            {
              pr_float (os, increment, fw);
              os << " : ";
            }
            pr_float (os, limit, fw);
          }
      }
      else
      {
        int column_width = fw + 2;
        octave_idx_type total_width = num_elem * column_width;
        octave_idx_type max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols ();

        if (free_format)
          {
            os << r;
            return;
          }

        octave_idx_type inc = num_elem;
        if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
          {
            inc = max_width / column_width;
            if (inc == 0)
            inc++;
          }

        max_width -= extra_indent;

        if (max_width < 0)
          max_width = 0;

        pr_scale_header (os, scale);

        octave_idx_type col = 0;
        while (col < num_elem)
          {
            octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < num_elem ? col + inc : num_elem;

            pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                         extra_indent);

            os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";

            for (octave_idx_type i = col; i < lim; i++)
            {
              OCTAVE_QUIT;

              double val = base + i * increment;

              if (i == num_elem - 1)
                {
                  // See the comments in Range::matrix_value.

                  if ((increment > 0 && val > limit)
                    || (increment < 0 && val < limit))
                  val = limit;
                }

              os << "  ";

              pr_float (os, val, fw, scale);
            }

            col += inc;
          }
      }
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const boolMatrix& bm,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax,
                   int extra_indent)
{
  Matrix tmp (bm);
  octave_print_internal (os, tmp, pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const boolNDArray& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax,
                   int extra_indent)
{
  switch (nda.ndims ())
    {
    case 1:
    case 2:
      octave_print_internal (os, nda.matrix_value (),
                       pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
      break;

    default:
      PRINT_ND_ARRAY (os, nda, boolNDArray, bool, boolMatrix);
      break;
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const charMatrix& chm,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax,
                   int /* extra_indent FIXME */,
                   bool pr_as_string)
{
  if (pr_as_string)
    {
      octave_idx_type nstr = chm.rows ();

      if (pr_as_read_syntax && nstr > 1)
      os << "[ ";

      if (nstr != 0)
      {
        for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < nstr; i++)
          {
            OCTAVE_QUIT;

            std::string row = chm.row_as_string (i);

            if (pr_as_read_syntax)
            {
              os << "\"" << undo_string_escapes (row) << "\"";

              if (i < nstr - 1)
                os << "; ";
            }
            else
            {
              os << row;

              if (i < nstr - 1)
                os << "\n";
            }
          }
      }

      if (pr_as_read_syntax && nstr > 1)
      os << " ]";
    }
  else
    {
      os << "sorry, printing char matrices not implemented yet\n";
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const charNDArray& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent,
                   bool pr_as_string)
{
  switch (nda.ndims ())
    {
    case 1:
    case 2:
      octave_print_internal (os, nda.matrix_value (),
                       pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent, pr_as_string);
      break;

    default:
      PRINT_ND_ARRAY (os, nda, charNDArray, char, charMatrix);
      break;
    }
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const std::string& s,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  ArrayN<std::string> nda (dim_vector (1, 1), s);

  octave_print_internal (os, nda, pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent);
}

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const ArrayN<std::string>& nda,
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int /* extra_indent */)
{
  // FIXME -- this mostly duplicates the code in the
  // PRINT_ND_ARRAY macro.

  if (nda.is_empty ())
    print_empty_nd_array (os, nda.dims (), pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (nda.length () == 1)
    {
      os << nda(0);
    }
  else
    {
      int ndims = nda.ndims ();

      dim_vector dims = nda.dims ();

      Array<octave_idx_type> ra_idx (ndims, 0);

      octave_idx_type m = 1;

      for (int i = 2; i < ndims; i++)
      m *= dims(i);

      octave_idx_type nr = dims(0);
      octave_idx_type nc = dims(1);

      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < m; i++)
      {
        std::string nm = "ans";

        if (m > 1)
          {
            nm += "(:,:,";

            std::ostringstream buf;

            for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++)
            {
              buf << ra_idx(k) + 1;

              if (k < ndims - 1)
                buf << ",";
              else
                buf << ")";
            }

            nm += buf.str ();
          }

        Array<idx_vector> idx (ndims);

        idx(0) = idx_vector (':');
        idx(1) = idx_vector (':');

        for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++)
          idx(k) = idx_vector (ra_idx(k));

        Array2<std::string> page (nda.index (idx), nr, nc);

        // FIXME -- need to do some more work to put these
        // in neatly aligned columns...

        octave_idx_type n_rows = page.rows ();
        octave_idx_type n_cols = page.cols ();

        os << nm << " =\n\n";

        for (octave_idx_type ii = 0; ii < n_rows; ii++)
          {
            for (octave_idx_type jj = 0; jj < n_cols; jj++)
            os << "  " << page(ii,jj);

            os << "\n";
          }

        if (i < m - 1)
          os << "\n";

        if (i < m)
          increment_index (ra_idx, dims, 2);
      }
    }
}

template <class T>
class
octave_print_conv
{
public:
  typedef T print_conv_type;
};

#define PRINT_CONV(T1, T2) \
  template <> \
  class \
  octave_print_conv<T1> \
  { \
  public: \
    typedef T2 print_conv_type; \
  }

PRINT_CONV (octave_int8, octave_int16);
PRINT_CONV (octave_uint8, octave_uint16);

#undef PRINT_CONV

template <class T>
/* static */ inline void
pr_int (std::ostream& os, const T& d, int fw = 0)
{
  size_t sz = d.byte_size();
  const unsigned char * tmpi = d.iptr();

  // Unless explicitly asked for, always print in big-endian
  // format for hex and bit formats.
  //
  //   {bit,hex}_format == 1: print big-endian
  //   {bit,hex}_format == 2: print native

  if (hex_format)
    {
      char ofill = os.fill ('0');

      std::ios::fmtflags oflags
      = os.flags (std::ios::right | std::ios::hex);

      if (hex_format > 1 || oct_mach_info::words_big_endian ())
      {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < sz; i++)
          os << std::setw (2) << static_cast<int> (tmpi[i]);
      }
      else
      {
        for (int i = sz - 1; i >= 0; i--)
          os << std::setw (2) << static_cast<int> (tmpi[i]);
      }

      os.fill (ofill);
      os.setf (oflags);   
    }
  else if (bit_format)
    {
      if (oct_mach_info::words_big_endian ())
      {
        for (size_t i = 0; i < sz; i++)
          PRINT_CHAR_BITS (os, tmpi[i]);
      }
      else
      {
        if (bit_format > 1)
          {
            for (size_t i = 0; i < sz; i++)
            PRINT_CHAR_BITS_SWAPPED (os, tmpi[i]);
          }
        else
          {
            for (int i = sz - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            PRINT_CHAR_BITS (os, tmpi[i]);
          }
      }
    }
  else
    {
      os << std::setw (fw)
       << typename octave_print_conv<T>::print_conv_type (d);

      if (bank_format)
      os << ".00";
    }
}

// FIXME -- all this mess with abs is an attempt to avoid seeing
//
//   warning: comparison of unsigned expression < 0 is always false
//
// from GCC.  Isn't there a better way

template <class T>
/* static */ inline T
abs (T x)
{
  return x < 0 ? -x : x;
}

#define INSTANTIATE_ABS(T) \
  template /* static */ inline T abs (T)

INSTANTIATE_ABS(signed char);
INSTANTIATE_ABS(short);
INSTANTIATE_ABS(int);
INSTANTIATE_ABS(long);
INSTANTIATE_ABS(long long);

#define SPECIALIZE_UABS(T) \
  template <> \
  /* static */ inline unsigned T \
  abs (unsigned T x) \
  { \
    return x; \
  }

SPECIALIZE_UABS(char)
SPECIALIZE_UABS(short)
SPECIALIZE_UABS(int)
SPECIALIZE_UABS(long)
SPECIALIZE_UABS(long long)

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_int8&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_int16&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_int32&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_int64&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_uint8&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_uint16&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_uint32&, int);

template void
pr_int (std::ostream&, const octave_uint64&, int);

template <class T>
void
octave_print_internal_template (std::ostream& os, const octave_int<T>& val,
                        bool)
{
  if (plus_format)
    {
      pr_plus_format (os, val);
    }
  else
    {
      if (free_format)
      os << typename octave_print_conv<octave_int<T> >::print_conv_type (val);
      else
      pr_int (os, val);
    }
}

#define PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL(TYPE) \
  OCTINTERP_API void \
  octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const octave_int<TYPE>& val, bool dummy) \
  { \
    octave_print_internal_template (os, val, dummy); \
  }

PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (int8_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (uint8_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (int16_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (uint16_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (int32_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (uint32_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (int64_t)
PRINT_INT_SCALAR_INTERNAL (uint64_t)

template <class T>
/* static */ inline void
octave_print_internal_template (std::ostream& os, const intNDArray<T>& nda,
                        bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent)
{
  // FIXME -- this mostly duplicates the code in the
  // PRINT_ND_ARRAY macro.

  if (nda.is_empty ())
    print_empty_nd_array (os, nda.dims (), pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (nda.length () == 1)
    octave_print_internal_template (os, nda(0), pr_as_read_syntax);
  else if (plus_format && ! pr_as_read_syntax)
    {
      int ndims = nda.ndims ();

      Array<octave_idx_type> ra_idx (ndims, 0);

      dim_vector dims = nda.dims ();

      octave_idx_type m = 1;

      for (int i = 2; i < ndims; i++)
      m *= dims(i);

      octave_idx_type nr = dims(0);
      octave_idx_type nc = dims(1);

      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < m; i++)
      {
        if (m > 1)
          {
            std::string nm = "ans(:,:,";

            std::ostringstream buf;

            for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++)
            {
              buf << ra_idx(k) + 1;

              if (k < ndims - 1)
                buf << ",";
              else
                buf << ")";
            }

            nm += buf.str ();

            os << nm << " =\n\n";
          }

        Array<idx_vector> idx (ndims);

        idx(0) = idx_vector (':');
        idx(1) = idx_vector (':');

        for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++)
          idx(k) = idx_vector (ra_idx(k));

        Array2<T> page (nda.index (idx), nr, nc);

        for (octave_idx_type ii = 0; ii < nr; ii++)
          {
            for (octave_idx_type jj = 0; jj < nc; jj++)
            {
              OCTAVE_QUIT;

              pr_plus_format (os, page(ii,jj));
            }

            if ((ii < nr - 1) || (i < m -1))
            os << "\n";
          }

        if (i < m - 1)
          {
            os << "\n";
            increment_index (ra_idx, dims, 2);
          }
      }
    }
  else
    {
      int ndims = nda.ndims ();

      dim_vector dims = nda.dims ();

      Array<octave_idx_type> ra_idx (ndims, 0);

      octave_idx_type m = 1;

      for (int i = 2; i < ndims; i++)
      m *= dims(i);

      octave_idx_type nr = dims(0);
      octave_idx_type nc = dims(1);

      int fw = 0;
      if (hex_format)
      fw = 2 * nda(0).byte_size ();
      else if (bit_format)
      fw = nda(0).nbits ();
      else
      {
        bool isneg = false;
        int digits = 0;

        for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < dims.numel (); i++)
          {
            int new_digits = static_cast<int> 
            (floor (log10 (double (abs (nda(i).value ()))) + 1.0));

            if (new_digits > digits)
            digits = new_digits;

            if (! isneg)
            isneg = (abs (nda(i).value ()) != nda(i).value ());
          }

        fw = digits + isneg;
      }

      int column_width = fw + (rat_format ?  0 : (bank_format ? 5 : 2));
      octave_idx_type total_width = nc * column_width;
      int max_width = command_editor::terminal_cols () - extra_indent;
      octave_idx_type inc = nc;
      if (total_width > max_width && Vsplit_long_rows)
      {
        inc = max_width / column_width;
        if (inc == 0)
          inc++;
      }

      for (octave_idx_type i = 0; i < m; i++)
      {
        if (m > 1)
          {
            std::string nm = "ans(:,:,";

            std::ostringstream buf;

            for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++)
            {
              buf << ra_idx(k) + 1;

              if (k < ndims - 1)
                buf << ",";
              else
                buf << ")";
            }

            nm += buf.str ();

            os << nm << " =\n\n";
          }

        Array<idx_vector> idx (ndims);

        idx(0) = idx_vector (':');
        idx(1) = idx_vector (':');

        for (int k = 2; k < ndims; k++)
          idx(k) = idx_vector (ra_idx(k));

        Array2<T> page (nda.index (idx), nr, nc);

        if (free_format)
          {
            if (pr_as_read_syntax)
            os << "[\n";

            for (octave_idx_type ii = 0; ii < nr; ii++)
            {
              for (octave_idx_type jj = 0; jj < nc; jj++)
                {
                  OCTAVE_QUIT;
                  os << "  ";
                  os << typename octave_print_conv<T>::print_conv_type (page(ii,jj));
                }
              os << "\n";
            }

            if (pr_as_read_syntax)
            os << "]";
          }
        else
          {
            octave_idx_type n_rows = page.rows ();
            octave_idx_type n_cols = page.cols ();

            for (octave_idx_type col = 0; col < n_cols; col += inc)
            {
              octave_idx_type lim = col + inc < n_cols ? col + inc : n_cols;

              pr_col_num_header (os, total_width, max_width, lim, col,
                             extra_indent);

              for (octave_idx_type ii = 0; ii < n_rows; ii++)
                {
                  os << std::setw (extra_indent) << "";
                  
                  for (octave_idx_type jj = col; jj < lim; jj++)
                  {
                    OCTAVE_QUIT;
                    os << "  ";
                    pr_int (os, page(ii,jj), fw);
                  }
                  if ((ii < n_rows - 1) || (i < m -1))
                  os << "\n";
                }
            }
          }

        if (i < m - 1)
          {
            os << "\n";
            increment_index (ra_idx, dims, 2);
          }
      }
    }
}

#define PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL(TYPE) \
  OCTINTERP_API void \
  octave_print_internal (std::ostream& os, const intNDArray<TYPE>& nda, \
                   bool pr_as_read_syntax, int extra_indent) \
  { \
    octave_print_internal_template (os, nda, pr_as_read_syntax, extra_indent); \
  }

PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_int8)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_uint8)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_int16)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_uint16)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_int32)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_uint32)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_int64)
PRINT_INT_ARRAY_INTERNAL (octave_uint64)

void
octave_print_internal (std::ostream&, const Cell&, bool, int, bool)
{
  panic_impossible ();
}

DEFUN (rats, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {} rats (@var{x}, @var{len})\n\
Convert @var{x} into a rational approximation represented as a string.\n\
You can convert the string back into a matrix as follows:\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
   r = rats(hilb(4));\n\
   x = str2num(r)\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
The optional second argument defines the maximum length of the string\n\
representing the elements of @var{x}.  By default @var{len} is 9.\n\
@seealso{format, rat}\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  octave_value retval;

  int nargin = args.length ();

  if (nargin < 1 || nargin > 2 || nargout > 1)
    print_usage ();
  else
    {
      unwind_protect::begin_frame ("Frats");

      unwind_protect_int (rat_string_len);

      rat_string_len = 9;

      if (nargin == 2)
      rat_string_len = args(1).nint_value ();

      if (! error_state)
      {
        octave_value arg = args(0);

        if (arg.is_numeric_type ())
          {
            unwind_protect_bool (rat_format);

            rat_format = true;

            std::ostringstream buf;
            args(0).print (buf);
            std::string s = buf.str ();

            std::list<std::string> lst;

            size_t n = 0;
            size_t s_len = s.length ();

            while (n < s_len)
            {
              size_t m = s.find ('\n',  n);

              if (m == std::string::npos)
                {
                  lst.push_back (s.substr (n));
                  break;
                }
              else
                {
                  lst.push_back (s.substr (n, m - n));
                  n = m + 1;
                }
            }

            retval = string_vector (lst);
          }
        else
          error ("rats: expecting numeric input");
      }

      unwind_protect::run_frame ("Frats");
    }

  return retval;
}

DEFUN (disp, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {} disp (@var{x})\n\
Display the value of @var{x}.  For example,\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
disp (\"The value of pi is:\"), disp (pi)\n\
\n\
     @print{} the value of pi is:\n\
     @print{} 3.1416\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@noindent\n\
Note that the output from @code{disp} always ends with a newline.\n\
\n\
If an output value is requested, @code{disp} prints nothing and\n\
returns the formatted output in a string.\n\
@seealso{fdisp}\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  octave_value retval;

  int nargin = args.length ();

  if (nargin == 1 && nargout < 2)
    {
      if (nargout == 0)
      args(0).print (octave_stdout);
      else
      {
        octave_value arg = args(0);
        std::ostringstream buf;
        arg.print (buf);
        retval = octave_value (buf.str (), arg.is_dq_string () ? '"' : '\'');
      }
    }
  else
    print_usage ();

  return retval;
}

DEFUN (fdisp, args, ,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {} fdisp (@var{fid}, @var{x})\n\
Display the value of @var{x} on the stream @var{fid}.  For example,\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
fdisp (stdout, \"The value of pi is:\"), fdisp (stdout, pi)\n\
\n\
     @print{} the value of pi is:\n\
     @print{} 3.1416\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@noindent\n\
Note that the output from @code{fdisp} always ends with a newline.\n\
@seealso{disp}\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  octave_value retval;

  int nargin = args.length ();

  if (nargin == 2)
    {
      int fid = octave_stream_list::get_file_number (args (0));

      octave_stream os = octave_stream_list::lookup (fid, "fdisp");

      if (! error_state)
      {
        std::ostream *osp = os.output_stream ();

        if (osp)
          args(1).print (*osp);
        else
          error ("fdisp: stream not open for writing");
      }
    }
  else
    print_usage ();

  return retval;
}

static void
init_format_state (void)
{
  free_format = false;
  plus_format = false;
  rat_format = false;
  bank_format = false;
  hex_format = 0;
  bit_format = 0;
  compact_format = false;
  print_e = false;
  print_big_e = false;
  print_g = false;
}

static void
set_output_prec_and_fw (int prec, int fw)
{
  Voutput_precision =  prec;
  Voutput_max_field_width = fw;
}

static void
set_format_style (int argc, const string_vector& argv)
{
  int idx = 1;

  if (--argc > 0)
    {
      std::string arg = argv[idx++];

      if (arg == "short")
      {
        if (--argc > 0)
          {
            arg = argv[idx++];

            if (arg == "e")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_e = true;
            }
            else if (arg == "E")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_e = true;
              print_big_e = true;
            }
            else if (arg == "g")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_g = true;
            }
            else if (arg == "G")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_g = true;
              print_big_e = true;
            }
            else
            {
              error ("format: unrecognized option `short %s'",
                   arg.c_str ());
              return;
            }
          }
        else
          init_format_state ();

        set_output_prec_and_fw (5, 10);
      }
      else if (arg == "long")
      {
        if (--argc > 0)
          {
            arg = argv[idx++];

            if (arg == "e")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_e = true;
            }
            else if (arg == "E")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_e = true;
              print_big_e = true;
            }
            else if (arg == "g")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_g = true;
            }
            else if (arg == "G")
            {
              init_format_state ();
              print_g = true;
              print_big_e = true;
            }
            else
            {
              error ("format: unrecognized option `long %s'",
                   arg.c_str ());
              return;
            }
          }
        else
          init_format_state ();

        set_output_prec_and_fw (15, 20);
      }
      else if (arg == "hex")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        hex_format = 1;
      }
      else if (arg == "native-hex")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        hex_format = 2;
      }
      else if (arg == "bit")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        bit_format = 1;
      }
      else if (arg == "native-bit")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        bit_format = 2;
      }
      else if (arg == "+" || arg == "plus")
      {
        if (--argc > 0)
          {
            arg = argv[idx++];

            if (arg.length () == 3)
            plus_format_chars = arg;
            else
            {
              error ("format: invalid option for plus format");
              return;
            }
          }
        else
          plus_format_chars = "+  ";

        init_format_state ();
        plus_format = true;
      }
      else if (arg == "rat")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        rat_format = true;
      }
      else if (arg == "bank")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        bank_format = true;
      }
      else if (arg == "free")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        free_format = true;
      }
      else if (arg == "none")
      {
        init_format_state ();
        free_format = true;
      }
      else if (arg == "compact")
      {
        compact_format = true;
      }
      else if (arg == "loose")
      {
        compact_format = false;
      }
      else
      error ("format: unrecognized format state `%s'", arg.c_str ());
    }
  else
    {
      init_format_state ();
      set_output_prec_and_fw (5, 10);
    }
}

DEFUN (format, args, ,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deffn {Command} format options\n\
Control the format of the output produced by @code{disp} and Octave's\n\
normal echoing mechanism.  Valid options are listed in the following\n\
table.\n\
\n\
@table @code\n\
@item short\n\
Octave will try to print numbers with at\n\
least 5 significant figures within a field that is a maximum of 10\n\
characters wide (not counting additional spacing that is added between\n\
columns of a matrix).\n\
\n\
If Octave is unable to format a matrix so that columns line up on the\n\
decimal point and all the numbers fit within the maximum field width,\n\
it switches to an @samp{e} format.\n\
\n\
@item long\n\
Octave will try to print numbers with at least 15 significant figures\n\
within a field that is a maximum of 20 characters wide (not counting\n\
additional spacing that is added between columns of a matrix).\n\
\n\
As will the @samp{short} format, Octave will switch to an @samp{e}\n\
format if it is unable to format a matrix so that columns line up on the\n\
decimal point and all the numbers fit within the maximum field width.\n\
\n\
@item long e\n\
@itemx short e\n\
The same as @samp{format long} or @samp{format short} but always display\n\
output with an @samp{e} format.  For example, with the @samp{short e}\n\
format, @code{pi} is displayed as @code{3.14e+00}.\n\
\n\
@item long E\n\
@itemx short E\n\
The same as @samp{format long e} or @samp{format short e} but always\n\
display output with an uppercase @samp{E} format.  For example, with\n\
the @samp{long E} format, @code{pi} is displayed as\n\
@code{3.14159265358979E+00}.\n\
@item long g\n\
@itemx short g\n\
Choose between normal @samp{long} (or @samp{short}) and\n\
@samp{long e} (or @samp{short e}) formats based on the magnitude\n\
of the number.  For example, with the @samp{short g} format,\n\
@code{pi .^ [2; 4; 8; 16; 32]} is displayed as\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
ans =\n\
\n\
      9.8696\n\
      97.409\n\
      9488.5\n\
  9.0032e+07\n\
  8.1058e+15\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@item long G\n\
@itemx short G\n\
The same as @samp{format long g} or @samp{format short g} but use an\n\
uppercase @samp{E} format.  For example, with the @samp{short G} format,\n\
@code{pi .^ [2; 4; 8; 16; 32]} is displayed as\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
ans =\n\
\n\
      9.8696\n\
      97.409\n\
      9488.5\n\
  9.0032E+07\n\
  8.1058E+15\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@item free\n\
@itemx none\n\
Print output in free format, without trying to line up columns of\n\
matrices on the decimal point.  This also causes complex numbers to be\n\
formatted like this @samp{(0.604194, 0.607088)} instead of like this\n\
@samp{0.60419 + 0.60709i}.\n\
\n\
@item bank\n\
Print in a fixed format with two places to the right of the decimal\n\
point.\n\
\n\
@item +\n\
@itemx + @var{chars}\n\
@itemx plus\n\
@itemx plus @var{chars}\n\
Print a @samp{+} symbol for nonzero matrix elements and a space for zero\n\
matrix elements.  This format can be very useful for examining the\n\
structure of a large matrix.\n\
\n\
The optional argument @var{chars} specifies a list of 3 characters to use\n\
for printing values greater than zero, less than zero and equal to zero.\n\
For example, with the @samp{+ \"+-.\"} format, @code{[1, 0, -1; -1, 0, 1]}\n\
is displayed as\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
ans =\n\
\n\
+.-\n\
-.+\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@itemx native-hex\n\
Print the hexadecimal representation numbers as they are stored in\n\
memory.  For example, on a workstation which stores 8 byte real values\n\
in IEEE format with the least significant byte first, the value of\n\
@code{pi} when printed in @code{hex} format is @code{400921fb54442d18}.\n\
This format only works for numeric values.\n\
\n\
@item hex\n\
The same as @code{native-hex}, but always print the most significant\n\
byte first.\n\
@item native-bit\n\
Print the bit representation of numbers as stored in memory.\n\
For example, the value of @code{pi} is\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
01000000000010010010000111111011\n\
01010100010001000010110100011000\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
(shown here in two 32 bit sections for typesetting purposes) when\n\
printed in bit format on a workstation which stores 8 byte real values\n\
in IEEE format with the least significant byte first.  This format only\n\
works for numeric types.\n\
@item bit\n\
The same as @code{native-bit}, but always print the most significant\n\
bits first.\n\
@item compact\n\
Remove extra blank space around column number labels.\n\
@item loose\n\
Insert blank lines above and below column number labels (this is the\n\
default).\n\
@item rat\n\
Print a rational approximation.  That is the values are approximated\n\
by one small integer divided by another.\n\
@end table\n\
\n\
By default, Octave will try to print numbers with at least 5 significant\n\
figures within a field that is a maximum of 10 characters wide.\n\
\n\
If Octave is unable to format a matrix so that columns line up on the\n\
decimal point and all the numbers fit within the maximum field width,\n\
it switches to an @samp{e} format.\n\
\n\
If @code{format} is invoked without any options, the default format\n\
state is restored.\n\
@end deffn")
{
  octave_value_list retval;

  int argc = args.length () + 1;

  string_vector argv = args.make_argv ("format");

  if (error_state)
    return retval;

  set_format_style (argc, argv);

  return retval;
}

DEFUN (fixed_point_format, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {@var{val} =} fixed_point_format ()\n\
@deftypefnx {Built-in Function} {@var{old_val} =} fixed_point_format (@var{new_val})\n\
Query or set the internal variable that controls whether Octave will\n\
use a scaled format to print matrix values such that the largest\n\
element may be written with a single leading digit with the scaling\n\
factor is printed on the first line of output.  For example,\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
octave:1> logspace (1, 7, 5)'\n\
ans =\n\
\n\
  1.0e+07  *\n\
\n\
  0.00000\n\
  0.00003\n\
  0.00100\n\
  0.03162\n\
  1.00000\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@noindent\n\
Notice that first value appears to be zero when it is actually 1.  For\n\
this reason, you should be careful when setting\n\
@code{fixed_point_format} to a nonzero value.\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  return SET_INTERNAL_VARIABLE (fixed_point_format);
}

DEFUN (print_empty_dimensions, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {@var{val} =} print_empty_dimensions ()\n\
@deftypefnx {Built-in Function} {@var{old_val} =} print_empty_dimensions (@var{new_val})\n\
Query or set the internal variable that controls whether the\n\
dimensions of empty matrices are printed along with the empty matrix\n\
symbol, @samp{[]}.  For example, the expression\n\
\n\
@example\n\
zeros (3, 0)\n\
@end example\n\
\n\
@noindent\n\
will print\n\
\n\
@example\n\
ans = [](3x0)\n\
@end example\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  return SET_INTERNAL_VARIABLE (print_empty_dimensions);
}

DEFUN (split_long_rows, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {@var{val} =} split_long_rows ()\n\
@deftypefnx {Built-in Function} {@var{old_val} =} split_long_rows (@var{new_val})\n\
Query or set the internal variable that controls whether rows of a matrix\n\
may be split when displayed to a terminal window.  If the rows are split,\n\
Octave will display the matrix in a series of smaller pieces, each of\n\
which can fit within the limits of your terminal width and each set of\n\
rows is labeled so that you can easily see which columns are currently\n\
being displayed.  For example:\n\
\n\
@example\n\
@group\n\
octave:13> rand (2,10)\n\
ans =\n\
\n\
 Columns 1 through 6:\n\
\n\
  0.75883  0.93290  0.40064  0.43818  0.94958  0.16467\n\
  0.75697  0.51942  0.40031  0.61784  0.92309  0.40201\n\
\n\
 Columns 7 through 10:\n\
\n\
  0.90174  0.11854  0.72313  0.73326\n\
  0.44672  0.94303  0.56564  0.82150\n\
@end group\n\
@end example\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  return SET_INTERNAL_VARIABLE (split_long_rows);
}

DEFUN (output_max_field_width, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {@var{val} =} output_max_field_width ()\n\
@deftypefnx {Built-in Function} {@var{old_val} =} output_max_field_width (@var{new_val})\n\
Query or set the internal variable that specifies the maximum width\n\
of a numeric output field.\n\
@seealso{format, output_precision}\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  return SET_INTERNAL_VARIABLE_WITH_LIMITS (output_precision, 0, INT_MAX);
}

DEFUN (output_precision, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {@var{val} =} output_precision ()\n\
@deftypefnx {Built-in Function} {@var{old_val} =} output_precision (@var{new_val})\n\
Query or set the internal variable that specifies the minimum number of\n\
significant figures to display for numeric output.\n\
@seealso{format, output_max_field_width}\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  return SET_INTERNAL_VARIABLE_WITH_LIMITS (output_precision, -1, INT_MAX);
}

DEFUN (struct_levels_to_print, args, nargout,
  "-*- texinfo -*-\n\
@deftypefn {Built-in Function} {@var{val} =} struct_levels_to_print ()\n\
@deftypefnx {Built-in Function} {@var{old_val} =} struct_levels_to_print (@var{new_val})\n\
Query or set the internal variable that specifies the number of\n\
structure levels to display.\n\
@end deftypefn")
{
  return SET_INTERNAL_VARIABLE_WITH_LIMITS (struct_levels_to_print,
                                  -1, INT_MAX);
}

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